Remote sensing is photography?

Speaking of remote sensing, many people think that its main role is to "take pictures": taking pictures from the air to obtain effective information. In fact, remote sensing is by no means so simple, "photographing" is just a small "opening" of the remote sensing technology system. The real role of remote sensing technology is to extract information from "photographs" and apply it.

Guo Ziqi, a researcher at the Institute of Remote Sensing of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said: "Remote sensing is not just about taking pictures, but the spectral signal of the ground objects acquired by remote sensing also contains useful information beyond the visible light band. A photo usually reflects only the information within the visible light band , Which is the spectral information that the human eye can perceive. "

"Visual interpretation" and "computer interpretation" are the main processes for obtaining target feature information from remote sensing images. The process that professionals obtain specific target information on remote sensing images through direct observation or with the aid of interpretation instruments is called "visual interpretation", and "computer interpretation", as the name implies, is supported by computer systems, using pattern recognition technology and artificial intelligence technology. Combining the knowledge of the interpretation experience of the expert knowledge base and imaging laws and other knowledge for analysis and reasoning, to achieve the interpretation of remote sensing images, thus completing the process of information extraction.

At present, the range of information bands that can be collected by remote sensing optical sensors and microwave sensors is very broad, and the visible light band is only a small part of it. According to the different detection bands of sensors, remote sensing can be divided into ultraviolet remote sensing, visible light remote sensing, infrared remote sensing and microwave remote sensing. "And like infrared information, ultraviolet information, etc., ordinary photos of this information can not be reflected, only through the use of special imaging equipment after conversion can be turned into images seen by the human eye." Guo Ziqi said.

Is the remote sensing transmission accurate?

It is not difficult to imagine that if remote sensing shooting is carried out at high altitude or in land and water, many factors such as spatial distance will inevitably bring some inevitable interference and influence to remote sensing transmission, which is directly related to the accuracy of later data processing.

"The information obtained through remote sensing is very rich. In addition to the visible light band, the infrared and ultraviolet band or microwave band information is invisible to the human eye. We can only extract and analyze the information contained in it through remote sensing images. Guo Ziqi said, "Some of this information is interference information. For example, satellite remote sensing is used to detect surface information, and sunlight is reflected to satellite sensors. There is a process and distance in the middle. There is cloud interference and the sun is strong or weak. Interference, etc., so we need to correct its information, these are all part of the processing. "

Although the remote sensing information acquisition system is currently relatively complete, due to the complexity of the Earth ’s atmosphere, land and water bodies, errors in remote sensing images will inevitably occur. However, we can make corrections through post image processing to obtain more accurate information. "For example, when the remote sensing information acquisition system works normally, due to atmospheric attenuation, the acquired data still has radiation errors. At this time, atmospheric correction of the remote sensing image is required. Sometimes when extracting surface biomass, if the data is not Correction may make it impossible to obtain accurate remote sensing information. "Guo Ziqi said.

Remote sensing technology is omnipotent?

Resources, environment, disaster monitoring, urban planning, etc. can be seen everywhere in the shadow of remote sensing applications. It is everywhere in our life, but it does not mean that it is omnipotent. At least for now, it still has some "blind spots" that need to be broken through.

Guo Ziqi said: "Remote sensing now generally refers to the use of spectrum and microwave signals to understand the ground features. Spectral and microwave signals can provide us with a lot of useful information. However, the spectral signals themselves have no penetration ability, and microwave signals are also very limited. . In this way, we cannot provide us with information below the surface and below the water surface, and there are blind spots for detection. This is one of its shortcomings. "

Does this mean that we have no access to the information below the surface? Of course not! In fact, remote sensing technology itself has already exceeded the scope of spectrum and microwave. "Any information has its strengths and weaknesses. In fact, if we really want to solve an application goal now, the best way is to integrate all kinds of useful information." Guo Ziqi told the author, except for information such as spectral microwave In addition to the source, we must combine effective information such as magnetism, weight, electricity, and sound waves to comprehensively adopt them, so that we can have a more comprehensive understanding of our planet.

"The physical quantities measurable by remote sensing should cover all the concepts. It is more reasonable to generalize the concept. All physical detection content is in it." Guo Ziqi said that generally people understand the measurable physical quantities of remote sensing only by measuring the spectral absorption and reflection of ground objects Physical quantities such as quantity and polarization interference, which is actually a relatively narrow concept. "At present, the gravity, magnetic field, sound wave, and optical methods used in the human detection world have been widely used in the detection of macro and micro materials, and have become the only technical means to explore the material world. Generalized remote sensing should include these methods of detection technology known to humans. Remote sensing technology can effectively detect the material world in which we live, not just observe. "

Reporter: Remote sensing technology has been continuously explored and developed in the past few decades. What is supporting it along the way?

Guo Ziqi: "In fact, any academic development needs to be based on actual needs. For example, the current assimilation technology of remote sensing data is an extension of the standard data inversion technology, and its purpose is to provide physical consistency for the environmental parameters of spatial distribution. This is a critical step in the practical application of remote sensing to the industry sector. But this part of the industry sector ’s remote sensing industry is still far from enough. Remote sensing technology itself should be combined with practical significance and pay attention to the needs of the actual industry sector. Instead of blindly pursuing technological excellence. Any technology must be applied to production to serve them, so that such technology can show value. Otherwise, your air castle is high, even if the technology is unparalleled, it can only be Going further and further away from the correct development path. "

Reporter: Satellites and airplanes shoot and acquire a large amount of surface information every day, but the effective information that has been put forward by the industry is very small. Will this cause waste of resources?

Guo Ziqi: "The stored data is massive, but how much social effect can these data produce? The problem lies in the lack of application technology, the remote sensing technology is out of line with the needs of the industry sector, and does not serve the industry sector. For example, the same photo surveying and mapping Departments can be used, land departments can be used, environmental protection departments can also be used, it can be used by many departments. Many people think that remote sensing is a big 'frame', you can put anything inside, in fact, this view is wrong Conceptual ambiguity exists in a short period of time, and the concept must be clarified and refined in the long-term development. The simple point is what technology serves. For example, marine remote sensing may appear in the future to serve the ocean, and homeland remote sensing is to serve the country. Service. If we are going in the opposite direction, only pursuing the advancement of technology without combining it with actual applications, and obtaining a form of mutual promotion of demand counterparts, then I am afraid that the next step in remote sensing technology will be difficult to choose. "

Reporter: The accuracy problem is an important issue facing the remote sensing community in China. What should we do to improve accuracy?

Guo Ziqi: “In terms of instruments, all instruments actually have a limit. It is actually very difficult and unrealistic to ask for unlimited improvement. In my opinion, the best way is to make full use of resources and integrate all kinds of data. To get up, combine point elements and surface elements. The pursuit of higher efficiency and faster. In the future of the development of remote sensing technology, through the detection of various information, it is not difficult to imagine: we can use remote sensing technology to calculate the occurrence of a disaster in a place What is the probability, so that by taking some defensive measures accordingly, it will reduce a lot of losses; for example, earthquakes and debris flows often occur in a certain place, then you can bypass it purposefully when building a highway; in the cover When building, do n’t build in these dangerous areas with seismic activity. Although at present, this assumption cannot be satisfied, but we believe that this will be the only way for the development of remote sensing application technology. "

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