Under normal circumstances, scientists extract DNA from microorganisms grown in the laboratory and then sequence it. Because P. jirovecii cells cannot be obtained under laboratory conditions, their genomic DNA cannot be obtained, but Hauser and colleagues took additional A method. They collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pneumocystis pneumonia, collected P. jirovecii cells by immunoprecipitation, and obtained mixed DNA double-strands by random primer amplification. These DNA mixtures contain The DNA of jirovecii, human and other microorganisms in the lungs of the patient. Subsequently, the researchers conducted high-throughput sequencing of these mixed DNAs.

Hauser and colleagues said that what they got was sequencing results of multiple species, which brought them great challenges. "The biggest challenge is to isolate the target sequence from these mixed data." Hauser said. SIB Switzerland The Institute of Bioinformatics provides indispensable expertise and infrastructure in this regard. After completing the sequence classification, the researchers began to assemble the genomes of these sequences while trying to identify functional genes. This is the first time scientists have Genome assembly is carried out in a pool of mixed DNA from the source. This is called the metagenome. Their analysis reveals a surprising fact: P. jirovecii can only survive in the human body.

P. jirovecii lacks the necessary genes to produce some essential components of life, which is a sign of obligate parasitism. "This means that they need the host to provide themselves with the materials needed for life. Therefore, the human body is the carrier of this parasite. "This is a major discovery." Hauser said. This is useful information, because it means that humans are an important resource for this microorganism, and pathogens and carriers are the key points to control the spread of Pneumocystis .

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